Pune is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and seventh most populous city in the country. Pune is administrative
headquarter of Pune district and was once thecentre of power of the Maratha Empire established by Shivaji Maharaj. In the 18th century, Pune was
the political centre of the Indian subcontinent, as the seat of the Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire. Considered to be the
cultural capital of Maharashtra,pune is known as "Oxford of the East"due to the presence of several wellknown educational institutions in the city has
emerged as a major educationalhub in recent decades in recent decades nearly half of the total international students in country studying in Pune.
Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow. The city is known,for its
manufacturing and automobile industries as well as if or research institutes of information technology (IT), The city has many sites which are of thr
heritage value and are symbolic of the cultural climaxes it has reached in the past.
Early and medieval
Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. the
plates indicate that region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty.The Pataleshwar rock - cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of
the territory ruled by Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327. In 1595, Maloji Raje Bhowasales granted the jagirdari (Fiefdom) of
pune by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.
Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar. His grandson,Shivaji, the
founder of Maratha confederate, was born in Shivneri fort not far from Pune. Shivaji was brought up by his mother in Pune. Pune changed hands
several times hands several times between the Mughals and institutes of the Marathas in the period between 1660 and 1705.When Chhatrapati shahu
shahu succeeded to the Maratha throne in 1707,he wanted to declare Satara the capital but his chief administrators the Peshwa who were the real
power behind the throne,decided Pune was to be their headquarters.
Bajirao Peshwa constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada.
The aqueduct is still operational. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed, Saras Baug, Heera Baug Parvati
Hill and new commercial,trading and residential localities..
the city was known as Poona during British rule. The Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A railway line from Bombay to city opened in 1858,
run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj.
In addition to its temples, historical attractions in and around Pune include the rockcut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga plained to the Shahu(King)
Saying that Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, lal Mahal, and Sinhagad fort.
Shinde Chhatri located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the Great Maratha Sardar, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia), who was instrumental in the
establishing the Maratha supremacy over North India The city is also known for its British Raj "bungalow architecture" the Garden Cities Movement
layout of the Cantonment in the early Twentieth Century.Christopher Charles Benninger landmark arc hitectural works surround the city,including the
the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and Samundra Institute
of Maritime Studies. Museums, parks and zoos Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum,Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj the
Museum of Indian History, Mahatma Phule Museum,Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum,Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and Pune Tribal Mus-
eum Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum,which is the biggest cricket museum in the world.
TheCollege of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre gauge train. Pune has public gard-
ens,such as the Kamala Nehru Park, SambhajiPark, Shahu Udyan,Peshwe Park saras baug, Empress garden, Taljai Hills, and Bund Garden Pune.
Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.The Aga Khan palace was built in 1892 by Sultan Muhammed Shah
Aga Khan III in Pune. The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged
with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature